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The date was May 9, The Pope was touring Mexico City. Hustlers from the Medellin Cartel were trying to buy black-market Stinger missiles in Florida. And nwa
The date was May 9, The Pope was touring Mexico City. Hustlers from the Medellin Cartel were trying to buy black-market Stinger missiles in Florida. And then The US Attorney's office in Phoenix, Arizona, had issued a press release announcing a nationwide law enforcement crackdown against "illegal computer hacking activities. Different counts in local press reports yielded "thirteen," "fourteen," and "sixteen" cities. Officials estimated that criminal losses of revenue to telephone companies "may run into millions of dollars.
The prepared remarks of Garry M. Jenkins, appearing in a U. Department of Justice press release, were of particular interest. Jenkins was the Assistant Director of the US Secret Service, and the highest-ranking federal official to take any direct public role in the hacker crackdown of These groups often communicate with each other through message systems between computers called 'bulletin boards. Some are now high tech computer operators using computers to engage in unlawful conduct.
What did they want?
Who were they? Were they "mischievous? How had "misguided teenagers" managed to alarm the United States Secret Service? And just how widespread was this sort of thing? Of all the major players in the Hacker Crackdown: the phone companies, law enforcement, the civil libertarians, and the "hackers" themselves -- the "hackers" are by far the most mysterious, by far the hardest to understand, by far the weirdest. Not only are "hackers" novel in their activities, but they come in a variety of odd subcultures, with a variety of languages, motives and values.
The earliest proto-hackers were probably those unsung mischievous telegraph boys who were summarily fired by the Bell Company in Legitimate "hackers," those computer enthusiasts who are independent-minded but law-abiding, generally trace their spiritual ancestry to elite technical universities, especially M. But the genuine roots of the modern hacker underground can probably be traced most successfully to a now much-obscured hippie anarchist movement known as the Yippies.
The Yippies, who took their name from the largely fictional "Youth International Party," carried out a loud and lively policy of surrealistic subversion and outrageous political mischief. Their basic tenets were flagrant sexual promiscuity, open and copious drug use, the political overthrow of any powermonger over thirty years of age, and an immediate end to the war in Vietnam, by any means necessary, including the psychic levitation of the Pentagon.
Rubin eventually became a Wall Street broker.
Hoffman, ardently sought by federal authorities, went into hiding for seven years, in Mexico, France, and the United States. While on the lam, Hoffman continued to write and publish, with help from sympathizers in the American anarcho-leftist underground.
Mostly, Hoffman survived through false ID and odd jobs. Eventually he underwent facial plastic surgery and adopted an entirely new identity as mornihg "Barry Freed. Hoffman's worldview grew much darker as the glory days of the s faded. Inhe purportedly committed suicide, under odd and, to some, rather suspicious circumstances. Abbie Hoffman is said to have caused the Federal Bureau of Investigation to amass the single largest jsa file ever opened on an individual American citizen.
If this is true, it is still questionable whether the FBI regarded Abbie Hoffman a serious public threat -quite possibly, his file was enormous nea because Hoffman left colorful legendry wherever he went. He was a gifted publicist, who regarded electronic media as both playground and weapon. He actively enjoyed manipulating network TV and other gullible, imagehungry media, with various weird lies, mindboggling rumors, impersonation scams, and other sinister distortions, all absolutely guaranteed to upset cops, Presidential candidates, and federal judges.
Hoffman's most famous work was a book self-reflexively known as Steal This Book, which publicized a of methods by which young, penniless hippie agitators might live off the fat of a system supported by humorless drones. Steal This Book, whose title urged readers to damage the ffun means of mornning which had put it into their hands, might be described as a spiritual ancestor of a computer virus.
Hoffman, like many a later conspirator, made extensive use of pay- phones for his agitation work -- in pnl case, generally through the use of cheap brass washers as coin-slugs. During the Vietnam War, there was a federal surtax imposed on telephone service; Hoffman and his cohorts could, and did, argue that in systematically stealing phone service they were engaging in civil disobedience: Mobile morning nsa fun pnp denying tax funds to an illegal pp immoral war.
But this thin veil of decency was soon dropped entirely. Ripping-off the System found its own justification in deep alienation and a basic outlaw contempt for conventional bourgeois values. Ingenious, vaguely politicized varieties of rip-off, which might be described as "anarchy by convenience," became very popular in Yippie circles, and because rip-off was so useful, it was to survive the Yippie movement itself.
In the early s, it required fairly limited expertise and ingenuity to cheat payphones, to divert "free" electricity and gas service, or to rob vending machines and parking meters for handy pocket change. It also required a conspiracy Mboile spread this knowledge, and the gall and nerve actually to commit petty theft, but the Yippies had these qualifications in plenty.
This newsletter was dedicated to collating and spreading Yippie rip-off techniques, especially of phones, to the joy of the freewheeling underground and the insensate rage of all straight people. As a political tactic, phone-service theft ensured that Yippie advocates would always have ready access to the long-distance telephone as a medium, despite the Yippies' chronic lack of organization, discipline, money, or even a steady home address. After the Vietnam War ended, the steam began leaking rapidly out of American radical dissent.
But by this time, "Bell" and his dozen or so core contributors had the bit between their teeth, and had begun to derive tremendous gut-level satisfaction from the sensation of pure technical power. TAP articles, once highly politicized, became pitilessly jargonized and technical, in homage or parody to the Bell System's own technical documents, which TAP studied closely, gutted, and reproduced without permission.
The TAP elite revelled in gloating possession of the specialized knowledge necessary to beat the system. In"Tom Edison" had his computer stolen and his house set on fire by an arsonist. This was an eventually mortal blow to TAP though the legendary name was to be resurrected in by a young Kentuckian computeroutlaw named "Predat0r.
The legions of petty phone thieves vastly out those "phone phreaks" who "explore the system" for the sake of the intellectual challenge. The New York metropolitan area long in the vanguard of American crime claims overphysical attacks on pay telephones every year! Studied carefully, a modern payphone reveals itself as a little fortress, carefully deed and redeed over generations, to resist coinslugs, zaps of electricity, chunks of coin-shaped ice, prybars, magnets, lockpicks, blasting caps.
Public pay- phones must survive in a world of unfriendly, greedy people, and a modern payphone is as exquisitely evolved as a cactus. Because the phone network pre-dates the computer network, the scofflaws known as "phone phreaks" pre-date the scofflaws known as "computer hackers. The phone system has been digitized, and computers have learned to "talk" over phone-lines. What's worse Mobile morning nsa fun pnp and this was the point of the Mr.
Jenkins of the Secret Service -- some hackers have learned to steal, and some thieves have learned to hack. Despite the blurring, one can still draw a few useful behavioral distinctions between "phreaks" and "hackers. Phone phreaks love nothing so much as Moile illegal conference calls of ten or twelve chatting conspirators, seaboard to seaboard, lasting for many hours -- and running, of course, on somebody else's tab, preferably a large corporation's.
As phone-phreak conferences wear on, people drop out or simply leave the phone off the hook, while they sashay off to work or school or babysittingand new people are phoned up and invited to in, from some other continent, if possible. Technical Moible, boasts, brags, lies, head-trip deceptions, weird rumors, and cruel morniny are all freely exchanged. The lowest rung of phone- phreaking is the theft of telephone access codes.
Charging a phone call to somebody else's stolen is, of course, a pig-easy way of stealing phone service, requiring practically no technical expertise. This practice has been very widespread, especially among lonely people without much money who are far from home.
Code theft has flourished especially in college dorms, military bases, and, notoriously, among roadies for rock bands. Of late, code theft has spread very rapidly among Third Worlders in the US, who pile up enormous unpaid long-distance bills to the Caribbean, South America, and Pakistan.
The simplest way to steal phone-codes is simply to look over a victim's shoulder as he punches-in his own code- on a public payphone. This technique is known as "shoulder-surfing," and is especially common in airports, bus terminals, and train stations. The code is then sold by the thief for a few dollars. The buyer abusing the code has no computer expertise, but calls his Mom in New York, Kingston or Caracas and runs up a huge bill with impunity. The losses from this primitive phreaking activity are far, far greater than the monetary losses caused by computer-intruding hackers.
In the mid-to-late s, until the introduction of sterner telco security measures, computerized code theft worked like a charm, and was virtually omnipresent throughout the digital underground, among phreaks and hackers alike. This was accomplished through programming one's computer to try random code s over the telephone until one of them worked. Simple programs to do this were widely available in the underground; a computer running all night was likely to come up with a dozen or so useful hits.
This could be repeated week after week until one had a large library of stolen codes. Nowadays, the computerized dialling of hundreds of s can be detected within hours and swiftly traced. If a stolen code is repeatedly abused, this too can be detected within a few hours. But for years in the s, the publication of stolen codes was a kind of elementary etiquette for fledgling hackers.
The simplest way to establish your bona-fides as a raider was to steal a code through repeated random php and offer it to the "community" for use. Codes could be both stolen, and used, simply and easily from the safety of one's own bedroom, with very little fear of detection or punishment. Before computers and their phone-line modems entered American homes in gigantic s, phone phreaks had their own special telecommunications hardware gadget, the famous "blue box.
It did this by mimicking the system's own al, a tone of hertz. For many, in the early days of phreaking, blue-boxing was scarcely perceived as "theft," but rather as a fun if sneaky way to use excess phone capacity harmlessly.
After Mobils, the long-distance lines were just sitting there Whom did it hurt, really? If you're fu damaging the system, and you're not using up any tangible resource, and if nobody finds out what you did, then what real harm have you done? What exactly have you "stolen," anyway? If a tree falls in the forest and nobody hears it, how much is the noise worth? Even now this remains a rather dicey question.
Blue-boxing Mobiel no joke to the phone companies, however. Indeed, when Ramparts magazine, a radical publication in California, printed the wiring schematics necessary to create a mute box in Junethe magazine was seized by police and Pacific Bell phonecompany officials. The mute box, a blue-box variant, allowed its user to receive long-distance calls free of charge to the caller.
This was an ominous precedent for free-expression issues, but the telco's crushing of a radical-fringe magazine passed without serious challenge at the time.
Even in the freewheeling California s, it was widely felt that there was something sacrosanct about what the phone company knew; that the telco had a legal and moral right to protect itself by shutting off the flow of such illicit information. Most telco information was so "specialized" that it would scarcely be understood by any honest member of the public.
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